Does pregnancy really cause immunodeficiency?

 Does pregnancy really cause immunodeficiency?

Does pregnancy really cause immunodeficiency

A woman's body undergoes drastic changes during pregnancy; To provide a suitable environment to incubate the fetus, these changes may affect the health of the pregnant woman, and recently it was discovered that some changes in the immune system during pregnancy are not. It was previously thought to be suppressed because the immune system is still active, but to some extent, these changes in the immune system persist throughout pregnancy.

Notably, these changes occur in a highly coordinated and predictable manner in normal pregnancy  and due to changes in the immune system; The following may happen: 

  • During certain periods of pregnancy, pregnancies become less likely or more likely to develop certain diseases; Pregnant women may be more likely to contract the disease in the first trimester and less likely in the second trimester.
  • Changes in certain immune cells may result in the absence or disappearance of symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases in some pregnant women.
  • These changes may increase your chances of developing complications from the flu and other types of infections.
  • ancient beliefs

It is believed that for a successful pregnancy and implantation of the embryo in the womb, the immune system must be suppressed throughout the pregnancy to ensure that the pregnancy continues. The theory is based on the mother's immune cells present at the site of the embryo implantation, and it is believed that these immune cells attack the embryonic cells, which in turn attempt to suppress the action of the immune cells. Immune cells, so it is thought that if the embryonic cells function well and the immune cells are successfully suppressed, implantation may occur.

It is also believed to persist throughout pregnancy if fetal cells fail to suppress the mother's immune cells consistently throughout pregnancy; This can lead to a spontaneous miscarriage or premature birth. 

current belief

It was recently discovered that the presence of the mother's immune cells in the place where the embryo is implanted is essential to the success of the transplant, and this is not the body's response to the presence of a foreign body. The interactions between the immune system of pregnant women experience subtle patterns, as follows: 

  • A series of inflammatory responses due to the arrival of fetal cells to the endometrium is necessary for implantation to occur. These responses are similar to those that occur during wound healing. If these inflammatory responses are inhibited, this prevents the transplant from occurring. They show that control of these inflammatory cells is sustained in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
  • During the next 15 weeks; Anti-inflammatory cells and molecules predominate; Since the fetus is in a state of rapid growth and development, some fetal cells present antigens on the cell surface, originating from the father, which is usually the mother's immune cells; the cells recognize and attack foreign bodies; However, regulatory T cells; These are specialized white blood cells that stimulate the anti-inflammatory environment; cells that protect the fetus.
  • Due to the reactivation of the immune system, the activity of inflammatory cells and compounds increases dramatically as the due date approaches. The inflammatory response helps trigger the labor response. 
  • The effect of immunodeficiency on pregnant women

Immunodeficiency during pregnancy can lead to any of the following: 

  • delays or slows down the growth of the fetus; Because the health of the fetus depends on the strength of the mother's immune system, immunodeficiency may cause fetal growth retardation and slow or incomplete growth.
  • increased tiredness and fatigue, which are common symptoms during the pregnancy; But in immunocompromised, the severity of tiredness and fatigue can be greatly increased.
  • Having more influenza than usual.
  • There is a high rate of nausea during pregnancy; It is also a common symptom during pregnancy; However, immunodeficiency increases the frequency of morning sickness.
  • The body of a pregnant woman is susceptible to infection, bacteria, and toxins.
  • Tips and advice to boost immunity during pregnancy

It is recommended to follow some healthy habits and instructions during pregnancy to help boost your immune system. These tips and instructions are as follows:

Taking Pregnancy Vitamins:

It is advisable to take vitamins or nutritional supplements during pregnancy; As it helps to provide the essential nutrients for the pregnant woman’s body, as well as the growth and development of the fetus, and to maintain the health of the mother, it is worth consulting a doctor before starting to take it, and it is one of the most important nutritional supplements or vitamins prescribed for pregnant women with the following conditions: 

  • Folic acid.
  • Calcium.
  • Vitamin D.
  • Iron.

Eating a healthy diet:

A healthy diet plays an important role in strengthening the immune system. A healthy diet should contain a balanced amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and healthy fats. It is also recommended to eat more fruits and vegetables and stay away from fast food. 

Drink enough water:

Dehydration and insufficient fluid supply can weaken the immune system, so it is recommended to drink plenty of water, as well as its ability to help flush harmful toxins from the body. It is important to note that a pregnant woman needs approximately 2.3 liters of fluids per day.

Get enough rest:

Adequate rest is important for maintaining good health. It is a good idea to set specific bedtimes, recommend naps if needed, and be aware of the lack of evidence that supplements or vitamins containing melatonin can help with sleep deprivation. Therefore, it should be avoided during pregnancy. 

Doing exercise:

Exercise is good for your health and its movement helps you get a good night’s sleep, so it is advised to consult your doctor before starting any kind of exercise during pregnancy. [8]

Stay away from stressors:

Stress can negatively affect the immune system. Therefore, pregnant women are advised to stay away from the causes of stress as much as possible, while also being advised to be surrounded by a positive environment and show that laughter helps strengthen the immune system. 

Keeping the body warm:

Pregnant women should keep their bodies warm, especially in winter.

Doctor's review:

It is recommended to stick to regular check-ups with your doctor, and if you feel unwell; many over-the-counter medicines are considered safe during pregnancy to check the health of the pregnant woman and fetus; However, she is. It is best to consult your doctor before taking it. 

Taking probiotics:

(Probiotics), which can be obtained from their natural sources, such as: eating yogurt or from products containing probiotics as nutritional supplements; They help support the immune system; Which makes the body more likely to fight infection. 

Follow proper precautions:

to reduce the risk of disease; It is worth taking precautions; Such as washing hands frequently, not sharing cups, staying away from sick people, etc.

Can vaccinations be taken during pregnancy?

In addition to the routine vaccinations, women who are planning to become pregnant are advised to have the necessary vaccinations; Since most vaccinations are not recommended during pregnancy, and if you cannot have them before pregnancy, you can have the flu shot and whooping cough shot during pregnancy which is routine vaccinations; As with the rest of the vaccinations, it is recommended to get them as soon as possible after giving birth; All vaccinations can be given safely while breastfeeding.

Here are some of the routinely vaccinated diseases that a pregnant woman should take before pregnancy:

  • Tetanus
  • Polio.
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Measles.
  • Mumps
  • German measles (Rubella).
  • Varicella or chickenpox.